By mass, we make around 25 times more steel than aluminium each year. By volume, because aluminium is three times less dense than steel, we make about 8 times more steel than aluminium, However, aluminium products are around five times more energy intensive than steel, and while the average life expectancy of a steel product is 34 years, for aluminium it is 21 years (prediminantly due to the use of steel in longer lasting constructrion and the use of aluminium in short-lived packaging). There are many strategies for increasing efficiency, including making longer life products and reducing the yield loss in a manufacturing process.

Current projects

Past projects

Other past work

Future flow and emissions for steel and aluminium production
Steel, aluminium and the carbon targets
Cold Bonding for recycling scrap aluminium
Cold Bonding for recycling scrap aluminium

Related papers